Thursday, March 12, 2020

Chemistry Lab †Determining A Molecular Formula

Chemistry Lab – Determining A Molecular Formula Free Online Research Papers Purpose: To determine the molecular formula of CuSO4 xH2O using the mass of percent of water. Hypothesis: The variable x will be 5 and therefore the molecular formula will be CuSO4 5H2O. Materials: Hot Plate Beam Balance 100mL Beaker Scoopula Stirring Rod Beaker Tong Hydrated Copper (II) Sulfate Procedure: 1. Prepared a table to record observations. 2. Carefully plugged hot plate into desk outlet and turned on to medium heat. 3. Measured the mass of the beaker and the stirring rod. Recorded the mass in the table. 4. Added 3 g to 5 g of hydrated copper (II) sulfate to the beaker. 5. Measured the mass of the beaker with the hydrated copper (II) sulfate. Recorded the mass in table. 6. Heated the beaker with the hydrated copper (II) sulfate, stirred occasionally, until the crystals lost their blue colour. 7. Removed the beaker with the beaker tongs and allowed it to cool. 8. Found the mass of the beaker with the white powder. Recorded the mass in the table. Results: Substance Mass Empty beaker and glass rod 53.02 g Beaker, glass rod, and hydrated copper sulfate 57.34 g Beaker, glass rod, and anhydrous copper sulfate 56.165 g Hydrated copper sulfate 4.32 g Anhydrous copper sulfate 3.145 g Water 1.175 g Questions: 1. Determine the percent by mass of water in your sample of hydrated copper (II) sulfate. 2. Based on your data, determine the molecular formula of CuSO4 xH2O. 3. Suppose that you heated a sample of hydrated ionic compound in a test tube. What might you expect to see inside of the test tube, near the top of the test tube? Explain. If I heated a sample of a hydrated ionic compound in a test tube, inside the test tube I would expect to see water vapour, since the H2O would be evaporating when heated in the hot plate. 4. Suppose that you did not completely convert the hydrate to the anhydrous compound. Explain how this would effect: a) The calculated percent by mass of water in the compund. If I didnt completely convert the hydrate to the anhydrous compound, the calculated percent by mass of water int hecompound would be less. This is because the mass of the water would be less due to the mass of the anhydrous copper sulfate would be more. Thus it is not completely anhydrous. Therefore, if I went to subtract the hydrated by the anhydrous copper sulfate to get the mass of the water, it would be less. b) The molecuar formula you determined. If I didnt completely convert the hydrate to the anhydrous compound, the molecular formula would also be less since the mass of the water would be less due to the mass of anhydrous copper sulfate being more). Therefore, your molecular formula (and x) would be less. 5. Suggest a cource of error (not alraedy mentioned) that would result in a value of x that is: a) higher than the actual value. A course of error that would result in a value of x that is higher than the actual value is if you had not measured the masses correctly. If you had measured the mass to be more than it actually was, than your x would end up being higher than the actual value. b) lower than the actual value. A source of error that would result in the value of x that is lower than the actual value is if you had not measured the masses correctly. If you had not measured the compound with the stirring rod inside, than the mass would be less than it actually was. Thus, your x would be lower than the actual value. 6. List 5 specific safety precautions pertinent to this experiment. Pertinent to this experiment, there were some safety precautions to be taken into consideration. Firstly, your hair would have to be tied back since you were working with a hot plate. Secondly, you had to keep the aisles clear in case of an emergency, so that the teacher can have easy access to you. This also includes keeping your stools and bags clear of the aisles. Thirdly, you had to use a beaker tong to place the beaker ont op of the beam balance, since it was too hot to touch. Fourthly, you had to check your beaker for any cracks, since if it had any, then it would have a great chance of it exploding when heated. Lastly, you had to constantly moniter the hot plate and make sure not to touch it since you would burn yourself if you did. Conclusion: In conslusion, the hypothesis has been proven to be incorrect since the hypothesis was that the variable x will be 5. However, through calculations, it was proven the correct answer for variable x is 3. Therefore, the molecular formula of the hydrate is CuSO4 3H2O. Research Papers on Chemistry Lab - Determining A Molecular FormulaDefinition of Export QuotasResearch Process Part OneEffects of Television Violence on ChildrenThe Relationship Between Delinquency and Drug UseRelationship between Media Coverage and Social andStandardized TestingAnalysis Of A Cosmetics AdvertisementThe Effects of Illegal ImmigrationThe Spring and AutumnMoral and Ethical Issues in Hiring New Employees

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Epicyon - Facts and Figures

Epicyon - Facts and Figures Name: Epicyon (Greek for more than a dog); pronounced EPP-ih-SIGH-on Habitat: Plains of North America Historical Epoch: Middle-Late Miocene (15-5 million years ago) Size and Weight: About five feet long and 200-300 pounds Diet: Meat Distinguishing Characteristics: Large size; quadrupedal posture; big-cat-like head About Epicyon Possibly the largest prehistoric dog that ever lived, Epicyon was a true canid, belonging to the same general family as wolves, hyenas and modern dogs- and was thus a different beast altogether from the non-canid creodont mammals (typified by the giant Sarkastodon) that ruled the North American plains for millions of years before the Miocene epoch. The largest species of Epicyon weighed in the neighborhood of 200 to 300 pounds- as much as, or more than, a full-grown humanand it possessed unusually powerful jaws and teeth, which made its head look more like that of a big cat than a dog or wolf. However, paleontologists dont know much about Epicyons feeding habits:  this megafauna mammal  may have hunted alone or in packs, and it may even have subsisted exclusively on already-dead carcasses, like  a modern hyena. Epicyon is known by three species, all of which were discovered in western North America in the course of the 19th and 20th centuries. The lightest variant, Epicyon saevus, was named by the famous American paleontologist Joseph Leidy, and for a time was classified as a species of Aelurodon; adults only weighed about 100 pounds fully grown. E. haydeni was also named by Leidy, and has been synonymized not only with Aelurodon, but with the even more obscure Osteoborus and Tephrocyon as well; this was the largest Epicyon species, weighing more than 300 pounds. The most recent addition to the Epicyon family, E. aelurodontoides, was discovered in Kansas in 1999; you can tell by its species name that it was also close kin to Aelurodon!

Monday, February 24, 2020

Research Paper Article Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 1750 words

Research Paper - Article Example The causes of the rising costs are due to aging population and cost of new and modern treatments. Inefficiencies in delivery of healthcare also play a role in rising costs (Reisman, 2010). Healthcare science has rapidly progressed than the ability of managing the systems of healthcare. Patients are the main determinants of directional flow of health care, with the need to get quality and affordable treatment. Economic constraints to offer quality care lead to the need for healthcare institutions to design mechanism to meet the needs of patients. Efficient healthcare systems guarantee affordable, timely, and quality care (Bookman, 2007). Global difference with regard to price among hospitals is brought about by the service rendered quality, health and government policies in respective countries, technology used, wage bill and time. Hospitals, especially in the United States have a high cost mainly due to government policies that has made health sector expensive. Insurance is also unaffordable form many Americans. Hospitals that use state of art technology tend to be more expensive than the ones without. The payments for physicians and doctors also determine the cost in different hospitals. Doctors in America are highly paid than any other doctors. Some patients who need privacy need hospitals that are suitable to them for discrete procedures. Such hospitals tend to charge higher for such services. These are the major factors determining the difference in prices of hospitals globally According to Vick (2010), flow of patient represents the ability of systems of healthcare to serve patients efficiently and quickly as they pass through the various care stages. Working system ensures the sick flow like a river, indicating that every step of care completes with little delays. In a broken system, patients build up like a reservoir. This is seen in chronic delays especially in many emergency

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Oil and Off Shore Drilling Research Paper Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 2500 words

Oil and Off Shore Drilling - Research Paper Example While drilling of oil is deemed necessary for compensating the deficiency of oil and to reduce its ever-increasing price, the large scale environmental effects of offshore oil drilling cannot be overlooked. According to the law of environmental science mass is always constant and therefore the amount of materials human beings release into the environment must go somewhere and in the course renders its due effect on nature. Hence during oil spills a large area around the rig is affected destroying the habitat both of water and land. The BP and the Exxon Valdez oil spill cases are remarkable in this context and the arctic zone is extremely vulnerable (BP oil spill: Italy drilling ban hits UK-listed explorer, 2011; Fontova, 2008). Although offshore drilling was temporarily banned after the BP incident, the constant demand for oil and petroleum and its high price of $110 per barrel have prompted US to relax regulations and favor offshore drilling. Moreover the economic goals of meeting d eficiency and reducing prices are not met by increase in offshore drilling. ... Hence the team participants of the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries have been deeming it conducive to boost the production of oil in order to control price rise. The author explains that when the supply increases in order to ensure future availability and reduction in cost, this further creates a boost in demand and hence the normal cases of price fall under increased supply does not take place. However while talking about oil price and the need to reduce the same, one needs to consider the global oil politics and the economy, which will be at stake. For instance, the oil exporting nations reap a major part of their revenues from oil. The sudden rise in oil prices made the oil dependant nations cautious about the supply strains and countries like United States put large-scale efforts to expand foreign reserves for future use. When the demand for oil fell suddenly in 2009, prices began to fall and this led to major problems with respect to decreasing government expenditur es and welfare activities in the oil exporting nations. The reserves of â€Å"easy oil† were already exhausted and extraction of â€Å"tough oil† requires large-scale investment in drilling and exploration, which the companies were not ready to make considering the falling demand. Therefore as the remaining reserves were getting depleted there was an impending rise in oil price, as demand would surge after recovery of the economy (Klare 2009). This shows the dangers involved in attempts to lowering of prices. Brian K. Mignone, director of research on Energy Security Initiative, has projected a similar explanation in his article ‘Offshore Drilling Will Not Significantly Lower Energy Prices’. Mignone (2008) observes that offshore drilling will

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Oprtions Mngement Essay Example | Topics and Well Written Essays - 3000 words

Oprtions Mngement - Essay Example The contribution of n opertions strtegy is lso outlined s prt of hierrchy of strtegies tht we might find in ech firm. It gives n insight into wht is exctly n opertions strtegy nd wht re its components, how esy is it to implement such strtegy nd wht cn n orgnistion expect from it. Bsiclly, the pper discusses the question of diversity of tsks tht opertions mngement incorportes nd tht these tsks should be combined to rech the potentil of opertions executed. Opertions mngement hs its origins in the study of 'production' or 'mnufcturing mngement'. (Pine, Boynton, 2003) These terms still very much pply to mnufcturing orgnistions tht will hve distinct opertionl ctivities tht convert sy, bens nd rich tomto suce into cns of bked bens to be sold by retiler. Thus, we cn initilly think of opertions mngement s being prt of distinct function producing product nd service combintion, just s we hve mrketing nd ccounting functions in mny orgnistions. The first definition of opertions mngement is therefore: Every orgnistion tht offers goods or services hs n opertions ctivity. s fr s the orgnistion structure is concerned, some firms will hve discrete opertions function. This might be clled mnufcturing deprtment, n opertions system, or hve no identifible nme t ll. However, like mrketing nd ccounting, it is fundmentl function of the firm with professionlly trined opertions or production mngers responsible for conversion of resources into the required product nd service combintions. In some orgnistions such mngers will hve different titles, store mnger for retiler, dministrtive mngers within hospitl or distribution mngers in logistics compny. This first definition tends to be rther nrrow s it pplies to core conversion processes (mostly mnufcturing). We need therefore to widen the definition of opertions mngement to second level: The design, opertion nd improvement of the internl nd externl systems, resources nd technologies tht crete

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

A major crisis in my famouse company or shop with one of my Essay

A major crisis in my famouse company or shop with one of my customers> - Essay Example This was the first time any such complaint was brought into the notice of the company. Our company has been an established name in the clothing and accessories industry since many decades. To protect our image, we asked the woman to leave the shirt and her contact with us and if we found that the rash on her face was the result of our product she will surely be compensated. After the woman left a meeting was called where the senior most management was briefed about this unusual complaint faced for the first time by any customer. It was concluded in the meeting that action must be taken on this complaint before any other customers come to us with the same complaint. An inquiry commission was appointed to look over this case and presented a report to the senior management about the whole issue. The shirt of the customer was sent for examination in the lab. After few days the result of examination came and it was a shocked to hear that the company’s product was responsible for the rash. The report suggested that chemical named â€Å"formaldehyde† is found in the fabrics of the shirt. This chemical is mostly used for giving the clothes permanent press effect and also for increasing stain resistance. However this chemical can be harsh on skin if used in large quantity. The amount of formaldehyde found in fabric supplied by the supplier was more than the standard amount and this is the reason why the woman was complaining about skin irritation. Now that the company found the root cause of the problem, it was decided that it will be better for the firm to change the supplier, to avoid such problem in future. It was concluded that it is not solely the mistake of the supplier, but the inspection department of our firm also failed to detect the presence of such strong chemical in the raw material. The head of the inspection committee was also given a warning after this incidence and was asked to be act extra

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

The History of African Americans Essay Example for Free

The History of African Americans Essay Jewish people had the horrific era ordeal of the Holocaust, Native Americans had to deal with the displacement of their people which lead to death, starvation and exposure to diseases while in en route to other locations. However one could suggest that African Americans had an extremely rough time, and till this day continue to have a rough time fighting for equality in all things. This is to not downplay the horrific, and devastating things that happened to other ethnicities, but despite the unfairness, the injustice, the inequality, African Americans have always found a way to rise to the occasion and still find some gleam of hope that one day things will be fair. African Americans have endured countless hardships, countless set-backs, and sometimes a seemingly never ending battle. Despite the way the United States have treated blacks from the time they brought slaves over to America on their ships, to this day in age, black people have not given up hope that one day all, especially African Americans will one day be treated equally. This purpose of this paper is to enlighten the accomplishments of the African American race as an whole, and will outline the many trials and tribulations that African Americans have gone through, the many contributions they have made, as well as the relentless efforts blacks have made to not turn its back on the United States, despite the country many of times turning its back, or more-so looking the other way while morally wrong events took place, despite the fact that it seemed oh so many times that they took three steps forward only to be knocked back two. Nonetheless they still prevailed and continuously paving ways and making things better for the next generation making harsh sacrifices, even to the extent of death. Immediately after the Civil War ended and Congress passing the Thirteenth Amendment abolishing slavery in 1865, no more than a year later former Confederate states started passing the so-called â€Å"Black Codes†. What this basically meant was that blacks were now allowed to legally be married, own property, and also have a limited access to the courts, and by limited it meant only when a white person was not being testified against. They could not serve in state militias or on juries, vote, or even start a job without having the consent of a previous employer. They also came up with harsh laws for things that were beyond control such as making it a crime for being unemployed or making trivial offenses, handled on a felony level or with harsher sentences. It basically re-enslaved black people in another fashion by requiring blacks to sign yearly labor contracts, and if refused they risked being arrested and fined or typically forcing them into unpaid labor. (Black Codes , 2013) In 1867 five all black colleges were founded: Howard University, Morgan State College, Talladega College, St. Augustine’s College, and Johnson C Smith College. These schools were actually established 26 years before the end of slavery. Some may ask why were these schools still needed in the first place, or still needed after schools were desegregated in 1954. Well the answer to that question is one of many. For one we must examine this from a realistic angle, at that point in time education amongst African Americans was not encouraged by many whites during that time. Remember it was about 87 years between the time black colleges began existing and schools becoming desegregated. So one can only assume that there were many things done to discourage blacks from being educated such as making laws, and giving harsh punishments, burning down schools, or even extending to death, if discovered that one could read and was educated. Originally starting out the purpose of black colleges were simply for one to teach others to become teachers, however it lead to being the foundation of many inventors, educators, CEO’s, politicians, activists, entrepreneurs, scientist, etc. People such as Oprah Winfrey, Thurgood Marshall, Martin Luther King Jr, Langston Hughes, Jesse Jackson, Spike Lee, and the list could literally go on and on. HBCU’s gave African Americans a sense of pride, dignity, and respect. It helped lead to black people being able to achieve the dreams, that they saw their white counterparts achieving. As a matter of fact during the 80’s and early 90’s it was actually deemed cool to wear HBCU paraphernalia, and be college graduates. People such as Debbie Allen, Bill Cosby, and Spike Lee, promoted the education of African Americans through TV shows and movies, such as Spike Lee’s â€Å"School Daze†, and also on The Cosby show, as well as the spin-off of it entitled â€Å"A Different World†. Which basically showcased the college life of black students, and it gave insight to show others that there are people who look just like them who goes to college. (Coleman C, 2013) After the Civil War in 1865, African Americans began feeling liberated, and they began seeking the same kind of lifestyles they observed their white counter-parts having, such as education, good paying jobs etc. The 20th century â€Å"gave birth to a cultural revolution, the era coined the â€Å"Harlem Renaissance had earned its status as â€Å"the capital of black America†. (Williams, 2013)The existence of organizations such as the NAACP, The National Urban League, and individuals such as Marcus Garvey, African Americans were free to do what they pleased; they still searched for their identity, their â€Å"piece of the pie†. (AE, 2013) In 1931 a case that included nine African American males and two white girls, showcased the injustice in the law when it contained African Americans. The Scottsboro Tragedy is the story of 9 young black males who hopped a train in hopes of finding work, but the only thing they ended up finding was a whole lot of trouble. These nine young men were accused of raped by a 17, and 21 year old white woman. Not that it was anything new to black people, but it was a landmark case that brought to light how the justice system in America differed when the accused are African Americans. This case highlighted how no facts, no evidence, or any proof was used. These young men simply were guilty with no ability to be proven innocent. Keep in mind that the most these boys could have done was hoboing through the train, and possibly could have gotten into a altercation with the white boys and perhaps have gotten the better of them. So for them to be accused of such a heinous crime as rape, showed just how much white people despised of black people. The majority of these young men would end up being falsely imprisoned, having the label of rapist pinned to their name, and go through three different trials that kept proving how the justice system was unfair, especially how one of the white girls recanted her story admitting that she fabricated everything and none of the young black men had ever touched her. But of course in those times it honestly did not matter, because they didn’t have access to fair trial, proper representation, and neither did the whole â€Å"innocent until proven guilty rule† apply to them. (Group, Scottsboro: An American tragedy, 2001) For many years to come America, especially black America would see time and time again how race would play a major factor in the laws and more-so of who which laws apply to whom. In the past years alone we have seen numerous cases of black men being accused of rape, when the evidence barely matched up, or if there were any evidence at all led to the unfar conviction of many black men who either spend many years behind bars for crimes they did not commit, only to be released because the DNA was not a match. Or the many black men who are beaten or killed by cops, specifically white cops, and the ruling comes back not guilt, and the legal systems tells people that it is ok for the police to shoot a unarmed main 50 times, when all he was doing was reaching for his wallet. Despite the inequality, the unfairness, and lack of opportunities in America towards African Americans, that did not change the fact that black Americans felt the need to not only prove they were intellectually capable of the task that the military needed but also, to show patriotism of the African American race. Although it seems ironic how blacks were fighting to keep the freedom for a country where they struggled to have the basic freedoms of others such as equal opportunities when it came to education, job opportunities and basic respect from other individuals. (Group, 2002). The Tuskegee Airmen were a group of African American pilots who were at first seemed to be nothing more than the military carrying out orders to have a group of educated black pilots, but they soon became one of the main forces behind winning the war with their bombing escorts. The very interesting thing about these men was that all they wanted to do was to prove that they were just as intelligent, educated, and has just as much tenacity as the white men. But they were constantly harassed not only outside the military but also inside the military as well. They were given missions that to be quite honest were nothing that proved they were capable of flying an aircraft. But as stated previously even after all their accomplishments and them fighting to keep the freedom of America, they still were treated as second or even third rate citizens, they were treated as if they never made contributions. 1945 marked the beginning of African Americans being able to not only express themselves, but keep current with events that affect s them, and topics that were directed toward black people. Ebony magazine was established and it was and still is a monthly magazine. The magazine was catered to African Americans, and it discussed health, fitness, finances, love, and simply African Americans live and achievements. The reason why this magazine was and still is so pertinent to the black culture because the magazine is catered to African Americans, because it gave black people a voice, it gave a voice that was relevant to people of color, and the topics were pertinent to black people has a whole. Ebony magazine paved the way for future magazines such as Jet, Essence, Black Enterprise etc. (Shahid, 2013) Malcolm X became one of the most influential people during the civil rights era, he was one of the first individuals to rejects the nonviolent civil-rights movement and integration, and became a champion of African American separatism and black pride (Davis, 2013). Now depending on who you ask, some may say X was one of the pioneers and his methods were necessary, and others may say he was nothing more than a trouble maker. But after careful research Malcolm X was a great man and it was not that he condoned violence, he condoned people standing up for themselves. He only was stating facts and the facts were the non-approach was not achieving much, and in the meantime black people were being killed in the masses because they weren’t fighting back. A man who seemed to be the opposite of Malcolm X, well in approach to the issue of direction of dealing with the Civil rights of African Americans. Martin Luther King Jr, became one of the most influential pioneers and voices of the civil rights movement. His nonviolence approach was both highly criticized as well as commended. (laureates, 2013) King worked diligently to establish racial equality, with his many sit-ins, protest and marches. He achieved many accomplishments in his lifetime, but that of course did not come without criticism because of his non-violent approaches, some people felt that King was furthering the slow progress of black people because they were not standing up for themselves. However his motive was the whole â€Å"kill them kindness† approach because he wanted to show that they weren’t just angry black people who wanted to fight, but he wanted people to understand what they were fighting for. In 1966 Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seales founded the Black Panther Party, a radical black power group, in Oakland, California. This was an organization was like no other and for those who had hate and animosity towards black people, and were considering starting trouble were in for a rude awakening. Because this group of individuals were organized, and as ironic as it may sound they established themselves as protection of the neighborhoods because of the police brutality that existed. And although they developed a reputation for militant rhetoric and clashes with the police. This was still an important time for African Americans because it gave the fire to stand up for themselves and basically fight fire with fire so to speak. The organization was short lived, and as certain research shows that certain federal, state, and local officials went through great lengths to discredit and destroy the organization, including but not limited to assassinations. African Americans have contributed a lot to not only this world but especially to the United States. As a whole they have jumped over hurdle after hurdle, they have continuously bounced back after many set-backs, and when so called rules were set into place they made it their business to break down barriers. Black people have accomplished a lot of things and despite the United States always backing them up, or them moving extremely slow to make progress, African Americans are still striving to make things equal and fair. But with all that said despite their being a African American President in office black people are still a ways away from the â€Å"promise land†. Because African Americans are still unfairly targeted by police, there is still gaps when it comes to getting loans, the rates on these homes, lack of good education, and fairness in jobs and pay. But no one can argue the fact that African Americans have made many contributions to the United States, despite the U. S. not always showing gratitude. Bibliography (n. d. ). Black Codes . (2013, April 13). Retrieved from The History Channel website. : http://www. history. com/topics/black-codes. AE, T. (2013, April 13). Harlem Renaissance. Retrieved from The Biography Channel website: http://www. biography. com/tv/classroom/harlem-renaissance#tgm Coleman C, D. (2013, http://hbcuconnect. com/history. shtml 14). The History of Historically Black Colleges Universites. Retrieved from HBCU Connect: http://hbcuconnect. com/history. shtml Davis, O. (2013, April 14). Malcolm X about bio. Retrieved from Malcolm X Biography: http://www. malcolmx. com/about/bio. html Group, F. M. (Director). (2001). Scottsboro: An American tragedy [Motion Picture]. Group, F. M. (Director). (2002). The Tuskegee airmen: They fought two wars [Motion Picture]. laureates. (2013, April 13). nobel prizes. Retrieved from Nobel Prize org: http://www. nobelprize. org/nobel_prizes/peace/laureates/1964/king-bio. html Shahid, S. (2013, April 14). 65 Years Ago in News History: The Birth of Ebony Magazine. Retrieved from newseum: http://www. newseum. org/news/2010/10/65-years-ago-in-news-history-the-birth-of-ebony-magazine. html Williams, A. (2013, April 14). Harlem Renaissance. Retrieved from In Academic World Book. : http://www. worldbookonline. com/academic/article? id=ar246340.